Research reports

Operational Research ReportsBaselines | Needs assessments | Master theses | Evaluations | Other

Operational Research Reports

Bridging the Gaps has conducted operational research in five of the sixteen programme countries: Vietnam, Costa Rica, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine. Operational, or implementation research aims to improve programmes. It seeks to find out how to optimise program inputs (e.g., personnel, supplies) and processes (e.g., training, supervision, promotion of services). 

From research to action: how to improve collaborative partnerships?
This peer reviewed article reflects on how partners collaborated in our complex alliance of over 100 different NGOs, using a multiple-method approach of participant observation, qualitative interviews, and a survey to explore the benefits, facilitators and challenges of collaboration.
Key words: collaboration, parnterships, research, HIV, rights, 

Reaching key populations and improving their access to HIV services in Kenya
This operational research report (2015) describes good practices and lessons learnt within the Bridging the Gaps programme related to reaching key populations with HIV prevention, treatment and care in Kenya. Based on interviews with 135 key population members and experts, this study identifies strategies to improve access for key populations to these services.
Key words: operational research, Kenya, key populations, access, HIV services

Better access to services for adolescents who use drugs in Ukraine
This operational research report (2015) identifies the enabling factors and barriers of access and adherence of young PWUD to HIV prevention programmes. Based on interviews with 85 Ukrainian young PWUD and 24 experts, in four project sites of Bridging the Gaps, recommendations are provided for reaching more young PWUD and improving their adherence.
Key words: operational research, Ukraine, PWUD, young, access, adherence, HIV prevention programmes

Promoting safe sex and empowerment among sex workers in Vietnam
This operational research report (2015) describes the experiences of 85 Vietnamese sex workers who participated in peer-led harm reduction programmes. This study shows how the CBO model can be the vector of the design of nation-wide interventions, as the model yielded positive results with respect to the adoption of safe sex practices and empowerment.
Key words: evaluation, Vietnam, sex workers, peer-led, CBO model

Advocacy for LGBT rights in Costa Rica
This operational research report (2015) shows the outcomes of CIPAC’s advocacy efforts to improve the accessibility of LGBTI people to health services in Costa Rica. This study aims to identify the successes and lessons learnt on changing attitudes among health care providers.
Key words: operational research, Costa Rica, LGBT, health, rights, advocacy

Engaging underserved key populations in Kyrgyzstan: what works?
This operational research report (2015) identifies the factors that influence the motivation of key populations to participate in HIV prevention programmes in Kyrgyzstan. Based on 440 interviews with key population members, the study shows the crucial role of outreach workers and provides recommendations for improving outreach work to reach hidden populations more effectively.
Key words: operational research, LGBT, IDU, SW, outreach

BASELINES

Baseline studies provide an information base on which to monitor and assess the progress and effectiveness of activities. The reports below describe the results of baseline studies implemented on behalf of the Bridging the Gaps programme.

Botswana: A baseline on the health and human rights situation of LGBT and other key populations
In this baseline report (2012), COC Netherlands and MSMGF describe the health and human rights situation of LGBT people in Botswana.
Key words: baseline, Botswana, LGBT, health, rights

Kenya: A baseline on the health and human rights situation of LGBT and other key populations
In this baseline report (2012), COC Netherlands and MSMGF describe the health and human rights situation of LGBT people in Kenya.
Key words: baseline, Kenya, LGBT, health, rights

Malawi: A baseline on the health and human rights situation of LGBT and other key populations
In this baseline report (2012), COC Netherlands and MSMGF describe the health and human rights situation of LGBT people in Malawi.
Key words: baseline, Malawi, LGBT, health, rights

South Africa: A baseline on the health and human rights situation of LGBT and other key populations
In this baseline report (2012), COC Netherlands and MSMGF describe the health and human rights situation of LGBT people in South Africa.
Key words: baseline, South Africa, LGBT, health, rights

Swaziland: A baseline on the health and human rights situation of LGBT and other key populations
In this baseline report (2012), COC Netherlands and MSMGF describe the health and human rights situation of LGBT people in Swaziland.
Key words: baseline, Swaziland, LGBT, health, rights

Zimbabwe: A baseline on the health and human rights situation of LGBT and other key populations
In this baseline report (2012), COC Netherlands and MSMGF describe the health and human rights situation of LGBT people in Zimbabwe.
Key words: baseline, Zimbabwe, LGBT, health, rights

Desk research: Health and rights of LGBT in Tajikistan [bilingual]
In this baseline report (2012), COC Netherlands and Equal Opportunities describe the health and human rights situation of LGBT people in Tajikistan.
Key words: baseline, Tajikistan, LGBT, health, rights

Desk research: Health and rights of LGBT in Ukraine [bilingual]
In this baseline report (2012), COC Netherlands and LiGa describe the health and human rights situation of LGBT people in Ukraine.
Key words: baseline, Ukraine, LGBT, health, rights

Sex worker baseline data report
In this baseline report (2012), North Star Alliance describes the health and rights situation of sex workers in Kenya.
Key words: baseline, Kenya, sex workers, health, rights

Baseline survey of the sex worker programme of Bridging the Gaps Vietnam
In this baseline report (2012), NSWP describes the health and rights situation sex workers in Vietnam.
Key words: baseline, Vietnam, sex workers, health, rights, access, services

Nepal: A baseline study on the scenario of the people who inject drugs
This baseline report (2012) describes the demographic, social and economic characteristics of PWUD in Nepal.
Key words: baseline, Nepal, PWUD, characteristics

Baseline data report
In this baseline report (2012), Mainline describes the health and rights situation of PWUD in Kenya.
Key words: baseline, Kenya, PWUD, health, rights

Drug laws and human rights in Kenya: Disharmony in the law and training recommendations to law enforcement
In this baseline report (2013), Mainline describes the Kenyan drug deterrence and human rights policies and laws, and provides training recommendations for law enforcers to contribute to the improvement of the health and rights situation of PWUD in Kenya.
Key words: baseline, Kenya, PWUD, health, rights

Assessment of risks and vulnerabilities of women who use drugs in Nepal
In this baseline report (2012), NEDUPA describes the HIV and other STIs and sex-related behaviour of female PWUD in Nepal.
Key words: baseline, Nepal, female PWUD, behaviour

Legislation and policy of the Republic of Tajikistan in the field of the rights of drug users to health and social support
In this baseline report (2013), AFEW describes the legal status of drug use in Tajikistan, analysing the possibilities for changing the country’s drug policy to meet international obligations in the fields of human rights, health care and social protection.
Key words: …

NEEDS ASSESSMENTS

The needs assessment reports below describe the results of processes of determining and addressing needs, or ‘gaps’, between current conditions and desired conditions.

Needs assessment for the betterment of services for PWUD in Jhapa District
This report (2012) explores the needs of PWUD regarding service provision in Jhapa District, Nepal. Based on group discussions with 63 PWUD, Wisdom Foundation identifies gaps and sets priorities for action.
Key words: needs assessment, Nepal, PWUD, services

Needs assessment among people who use drugs and at-risk youth in Ukraine
This report (2012) explores the needs of young PWUD in Ukraine as well as the barriers to accessing HIV services. Based on group discussions with PWUD and HIV service providers, AFEW identifies gaps and sets priorities for action.
Key words: needs assessment, Ukraine, PWUD, young, services, access

Needs assessment among people who use drugs in Kyrgyzstan
This report (2012) explores the needs of PWUD in Kyrgyzstan as well as the barriers to accessing HIV services. Based on group discussions with 112 PWUD and 36 HIV service providers, AFEW identifies gaps and sets priorities for action.
Key words: needs assessment, Kyrgyzstan, PWUD, services, access

Needs assessment among people who use drugs in Tajikistan
This report (2012) explores the needs of PWUD in Tajikistan as well as the barriers to accessing HIV services. Based on group discussions with 69 PWUD and 35 HIV service providers, AFEW identifies gaps and sets priorities for action.
Key words: needs assessment, Tajikistan, PWUD, services, access

Access to HIV prevention and treatment for men who have sex with men
This report (2012) explores the structural, community and individual factors that facilitate and challenge the access of men who have sex with men (MSM) to HIV services. Based on a survey among 5,779 MSM from 165 countries, MSMGF identifies gaps and sets priorities for action.
Key words: needs assessment, MSM, services, access

National study on access of drug users to treatment & fundamental human rights in Pakistan
This report (2014) explores the accessibility of PWUD to health and rights services in Pakistan. Based on a survey among 545 PWUD, APLHIV identifies gaps and sets priorities for action.
Key words: needs assessment, Pakistan, PWUD, health, rights, services, access

Rapid Situational Assessment, including mapping and HIV surveillance among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in the city of Rawalpindi
This interim progress report (2012) shows the progress made for people who use drugs (PWUD) by Nai Zindagi Charity and Mainline Foundation in Pakistan. Their programme objectives are to integrate services for PWUD into the general health system and to improve their human rights. Based on a survey among 201 PWUD, this study report identifies priorities of action for the remainder of the programme. Read the executive summary>>
Key words: progress report, Pakistan, PWUD, health, rights

MASTER THESES

The master theses below are the result of studies conducted among target groups and stakeholders of the Bridging the Gaps programme. The theses focus on issues that effect the lives of key populations.

Thesis Community Empowerment
The research question of this study was: What are the most effective community empowerment strategies for decreasing the HIV prevalence, increasing the access to HIV/STI-related services, and increasing the fulfillment of the human rights of sex workers, people who use drugs and LGBT people?

Thesis Meaningful Involvement
The aim of this study was to assess the extent of meaningful involvement of key populations in HIV/aids programmes and the effect of these programmes.

The invisible citizens’ revolution
This master thesis (2014) identifies how LGBT people living with HIV in Ecuador claim their rights for better treatment in the health system and the wider community, within a general environment of stigma and discrimination. Based on 20 in-depth interviews with LGBT people living with HIV and a document analysis, this thesis provides recommendations on the role NGOs can play in mobilising this hidden population. Read the executive summary>>
Key words: master thesis, Ecuador, LGBT, PLH, health, rights, community mobilization

Integration of health care and harm reduction services for people who use drugs
This master thesis (2014) identifies the current state of the integration of HIV-related health services for PWUD into the general health system in Indonesia and Kyrgyzstan. Based on fifteen in-depth interviews with health delivery experts, the study provides insight into how the concept of service integration is defined and how implementation can be improved in order to increase access to sustainable services for PWUD. Read the executive summary>>
Key words: master thesis, Kyrgyzstan, Indonesia, PWUD, health, integration of services, access

An exploration of best practices of meaningful peer involvement within a harm reduction context with substance users from GHB, MSM, and IDU drug use settings
This master thesis (2015) identifies best practices for involving former and current PWUD in outreach and harm reduction activities of public health organisations. Based on interviews with 20 using and non-using members of public health organisations in eight different countries, this study provides recommendations for improving peer involvement in the health sector. Read the executive summary>>
Key words: thesis, PWUD, best practices, health, peer involvement

Advocacy for the human rights of people who use drugs
This master thesis (2014) shows how and to what extent advocacy for human rights of PWUD is part of the activities of harm reduction organisations. Based on seventeen in-depth and sixteen survey interviews with harm reduction and advocacy professionals in eight different countries, the study provides recommendations for improving the implementation of advocacy activities by harm reduction organisations. Read the executive summary>>
Key words: …

EVALUATIONS

Mid-term Evaluation Bridging the Gaps – health and rights for key populations
This mid-term evaluation report (2014) shows the progress made within the Bridging the Gaps programme until 2014. Based on document analysis, case studies, focus groups and interviews with management, staff and beneficiaries, this evaluation identifies priorities of action for the remainder of the programme. Read the executive summary>>
Key words: evaluation, Bridging the Gaps programme

OTHER

Making the universal periodic review work for HIV
These publications analyse how and to what extent HIV related issues were addressed in the past two UPR cycles (2006 – 2017), and how civil society in country engaged throughout the process. The aim of these publications is to contribute to keep member states accountable to their human rights commitment.
Experiences from Indonesia, Uganda and Ukraine >>
Findings from a global analysis >>

Impact of Buprenorphine Opioid Substitution Therapy Program in Nepal
Youth Vision’s impact assessment report (2014) shows the effectiveness of buprenorphine opioid subsitution therapy as a harm reduction strategy to improve the lives of PWUD from 2007 to 2014. Based on a survey among 220 PWUD, this study identifies the positive changes in the lives of PWUD.
Read the executive summary>>
Key words: impact assessment, Nepal, PWUD, buprenorphine, OST

Mainline’s sober facts on Adherence to ART among PWUD in Pakistan
A common prejudice leads people to belief that people who use drugs can’t adhere to their anti-retroviral treatment. This is not true. A report from Pakistan – the result of an independent evaluation – holds significant proof that adherence rates among people who use drugs increase drastically after a short stay in a special HIV facility. Even when they relapse into drug use. Read the full report in Mainline’s series ‘Mainlines sober facts on… here.
Key words: evaluation, PWUD, Pakistan, services, access, adherence, hiv

Community Based Participatory Research: Access To Legal Identity Cards and National Health Insurance (NHI) Among MSM And Transgender Women: A Study in 4 Cities in Indonesia 2017

The GWL INA National Network, partner organization of both COC and MSMGF, has conducted community based participatory research (CBPR) in Indonesia. For Indonesia this is a new research model with active involvement of the community of Men who have sex with Men and Transwomen in the research process. The result is intended to benefit research participants and the broader MSM&TW community. 

For this CBPR on access to ID Card and NHI (2017), the GWL INA National Network, a MSM&TW CBO in Indonesia, has partnered with 4 local CBOs in Jakarta, Bandung, Bandar Lampung and Manado. The study  covered the access to ID card and national health insurance among MSM and transwomen and identified the challenges and opportunities regarding the access. 911 MSM and 989 transwomen in 4 cities in Indonesia participated in this study.

Key words: CBPR, Indonesia, key populations, MSM, transwomen, access, ID Card, National Health Insurance

 

Smart Guide: Advocacy Tools and Resources Used by Sex Worker-Led Organisations to Combat Violence 

The Guide provides an overview of the advocacy tools and interventions used by sex worker-led organisations globally to combat violence against sex workers. It builds on the guidance provided in the Sex Worker Implementation Tool (SWIT), which is a guide offering practical guidance on effective HIV and STI programming for sex workers. 

Smart Sex Workers’ Guide: Challenging the Introduction of the Nordic Model

This Guide builds on NSWP’s existing toolkit on the ‘Nordic model’, and draws on the experiences of NSWP members, using submissions, in-depth interviews and case studies. The Guide is intended as a tool to strengthen and support NSWP members and sex workers’ rights advocates’ ability to actively challenge proposals to introduce the Nordic approach in their countries.

Briefing Paper: Migrant Sex Workers

This Briefing Paper explores the human rights barriers encountered by migrant sex workers as a result of their type of labour. It highlights their lack of access to services, as well as the increased precariousness and exclusion they face due to legal restrictions on cross-border movement and work in the sex industry. This paper also places migrant sex work in the context of international labour migration, using consultation responses from NSWP member organisations. A short Community Guide is also available

Briefing Paper: Sex Workers’ Access to Comprehensive Sexual and Reproductive Health Services and accompanying Community Guide

Globally sex workers experience a number of barriers to comprehensive sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, ranging from explicit exclusion from international financing to discrimination within SRH services leading to lower access rates. This paper discusses the obstacles sex workers face when accessing SRH services, and examines the quality of services available to them. It also provides practical examples and recommendations for improving the accessibility and acceptability of SRH services for sex workers.

Policy Brief: The Impact of ‘End Demand’ Legislation on Women Sex Workers

This Policy Brief outlines the impact of ‘end demand’ legislation on the human rights of female sex workers, through research and testimony from NSWP members in countries where paying for sex is criminalised. This document explores how these laws not only fail to promote gender equality for women who sell sex, but actively prevent the realisation of their human rights.


Effective collaboration in partnerships for health and human rights toolkit
The toolkit for effective collaboration in partnerships for health and human rights helps to translate this research on collaboration into action, with a set of tools to help team managers and team members to establish or strengthen a collaboration in partnerships. It was developed by the University of Amsterdam together with Aidsfonds, Alliance partners, and tested and adapted during a pilot in Kenya in November 2017 and in Kyrgyzstan in March 2018.